Tests of Chemical  Model of Particles (CMOP)

Below experiments and data are not conform to Standard Model but to CMOP

1. Magnetic moment of particles (Wikip. 1 , Wikip. 2 , Fermilab ,)

Standard Model of particles is not conform to the measured magnetic dipole moment of muon, which differs from the theoretical value. This means the muon can't be a single symmetric particle. According to CMOP a muon has following structure: An electron and a positron circle around  a positron (muon+) or an electron (muon-). In addition there is an interaction by centered overlapping of a muon-neutrino.

This structure should be conform to the measured magnetic moment, which has to be checked.

2. Spin of quarks of neutron (see "phys.org")

Experiments showed that spin of "quarks" are not conform to Standard Model: Fundamental particle with main energy in neutron spins in opposite direction of neutron, whereas theoretical expectation is that it spins in same direction as the nucleus.

Experiments are conform to CMOP: A neutron has following  configuration: 1 positron in center, 10 positrons and 10 electrons in fully occupied 1s,2s,2p- orbitals + 1 electron in 3s orbital. The neutron spins in same direction as the positron in center, whereas the electron in 3s orbital, which is the fundamental particle of highest energy spins in opposite direction. 

3. Spin of quarks of proton (see "Wikipedia","arxiv.org")

Experiments to check the spin of particles of proton are not conform to Standard Model but are conform to CMOP.

The results have shown that the spin of proton is generated by a much more than 3 fundamental particles and that nearly half of these particles have opposite spin so cancels out for total spin. This is conform to 10 electrons and 11 positrons. Standard Model has no explanations how spin can be generated by virtual sea quarks or gluons.   

4. Radius of proton (see "Quantamagazine 2016)" 

Experiments showed that radius of proton reduces when it is orbited by a charged muon instead of an electron. This can't be explained by Standard Model. In CMOP  a muon is no single particle (see 1). The orbiting electron and positron of muon interact with the orbiting electrons and positrons of proton, which explains the differences to the interaction of a proton to a single electron. 

5. Mass of quarks of proton

Scattering experiments have shown that the fundamental particles of a proton have a sum of masses of just about 1% of the proton. By Standard Model it had been predicted that the masses of the 3 up and down quarks are about 1/3 of the proton. Due to the experiments the masses of these quarks had to be adjusted.

In CMOP the fundamental particles and their masses are well defined (11 positrons + 10 electrons). These are conform to scattering experiments as well concerning the structure as the sum of masses (about 1 % of proton). 

6). Confinement of quarks and gluons / Difference of sum of masses of fundamental particles to mass of proton

The strong difference of masses between sum of single quarks (u,d) in relation to mass of proton (about 1:100) show that formation of a proton requires extreme high energy and extreme high energy is released by decay of a proton to fundamental particles. If most of this energy is bonding energy of gluons this means that the bonding energy of gluons (and sea quarks?) to single quarks is about 100 times stronger than bonding energy of gluons to quarks in proton. So the bonding energy of gluons stabilizes a single quark but not a proton. Gluons would explain that quarks are stable and observable as single particles; gluons or sea quarks do not explain that quarks are not observed as single particles.

In CMOP the loss of bonding energy by factor 100 for a proton is well explained:

The electrons and positrons are stabilized by muon-neutrinos (dark matter particles). The stabilization is done by centered overlapping of orbitals and is in the order of 50 MeV/c². In a proton there is just a small overlapping effect for electron-positron pairs and a partly overlapping for the positron in the center. This explains the strong loss of stabilization or bonding energy of a proton. But this effect has no relevant impact  to the  bonding forces of electrons and positrons in nuclei.

The strong stabilization of sinlgle electrons and positrons by muon-neutrinos explains that these are much less reactive than these would be without this stabilization. So the chemistry of physics draw the scientiffically correct conclusions of mass differences: The mass differences  explains why the particles of a proton are stable and observable as single particle

(see also page "Definition of mass").

The interaction of muon-neutrinos with other matter is the first scientific explanation for gravity.

7. Bonding force of fundamental particles of nuclei

Above it is shown that the bonding force of nuclei can't be explained by interaction with other matter or corresponding masses . In Standard Model there is no well defined mechanism which explains the bonding force of fundamental particles of nuclei. The postulate of the existence of quarks and gluons and all assumptions about their properties create numerous unexplainable questions without presenting a satisfactory description of nuclei.

In CMOP the bonding force of fundamental particles of a proton is the usual chemical bonding force. due to the usual electrostatic and magnetic force between positrons and electrons, that means the same force which is present for bondings of chemical elements. Chemistry of physics that there are no other Forces and energies in universe.


 8. Stability of proton

In standard model the stability of proton is  postulated but not explained. CMOP uses explanations by energetic effects, which are well accepted in chemistry:  The orbiting 20 electrons and positrons mean that  all orbitals up to 2p are fully occupied which means a proton is in a highly preferred energetic state.

9) Decay of proton 

Collision experiments and collisions of cosmic rays to earth atmosphere show that protons decay to pions. Standard model has no satisfactory explanation for this decay.

In CMOP all decay reactions are well defined and like in chemistry for all reactions the number of fundamental particles are conserved. A proton decays by high energetic collisions via 2 kaons to 3 charged and one neutral pions. Pions can further decay via muons to electrons, positrons and neutrinos. The unexplainable magic transformations by weak force are eliminated.  CMOP also explains the huge amounts of energy generated by decays of protons, which is given by the differences of masses of proton to sum of decay products.  This is observed on earth by air showers, which are generated by decays of protons by cosmic rays. Thus the existence of UHECR might be questionable. .


10. Explanation of electromagnetic energy transfer (light) / Interference of light

Tests and observations concerning properties of lightlike interference  show that light cannot be explained by electromagnetic waves and also not by photons.

Light and corresponding experiments can exclusively be explained by existence of a particle which meets following requirements:

* exists in vacuum and matter in high concentration

* is massless

* is extremly stable

* can vibrate by electromagnetic forces at a wide continous range of energy (for this it has to consist of a system of charged particles, which can vibrate) 

* can interact with ordinary matter


There is only one particle which meets all requirements: the muon-neutrino consisting of 2 electrons and 2 positrons.

Thus VTOE is the only theory with a valid description and explanation of light. (see page "Explanation of light")

11. Other

All arguments on page "Arguments for particle theory" can be seen as tests for VTOE because  inconsistencies of current modern physics are eliminated.