Description of Dark Matter

The description of dark matter is a result of the Chemical Model of Particles (CMOP)* This new particle model is deduced from basic chemistry without any additional hypotheses. It has been proved to be much more consistent than Standard Model. 

* CMOP is the main part of "Chemistry of Physics" , which is a new chapter of science developped  early 2017 by scientists led by physico-chemist S.O.Vogel. As chemistry of physics shows to be able to explain and describe all physical issues  it is also called "Vogel's Theory of Everything" (VTOE).  See "VTOE overview".

VTOE is real science and all conclusions are or can be tested. See "Tests of CMOP".

Any disproof of the main statements of CMOP would be a disproof of basic scientific principles.

Chemistry of Physics is published as "Vogel's Theory of Everything by "Amazon e-book".

 

Dark matter as omnipresent medium is not only required to explain astrophysical observations like movement of galaxies or gravitational lense effect:

Dark matter is required to explain all forces and energies which are present in vacuum.

 

All forces originate in matter. Forces can mathematically be described by force fields, but force fields are no physically valid descriptions. Physically all forces have to be described and explained by interactions of matter.

 

Energies are properties of matter. Different types of energies are due to different properties of matter like mass, velocity, charge, magnetic moment.

As matterless areas cannot have energies, the energy transfer in form of light through vacuum requires the existence of energy transferring matter („dark matter“, formerly called ether) in vacuum.

 

It is already proved by experiments that light cannot be described by electromagnetic waves as there is no change of the transferred energy quanta (photoelectric effect, Compton effect). For light there is no interference of waves (amplitudes) but interference by differences of number of excited particles.

 On the other hand it has been proved that light cannot be described by photons (polarization, interference). So there has to be a physically sound explanation of the interference of "light particles" and for the fact, that the light particles can be polarized. The only possible solution is that light particles do a directed vibration.  This vibration cannot be explained by a single fundamental particle like a photon. It requires a system of bound fundamental particles which can do vibrations in a wide continuous range of energies.

 

Contrary to the Standard Model in Chemical Model of Particles (CMOP) the muon-neutrino can do the required vibration, as it is no fundamental particle, but a particle of 2 electrons and 2 positrons orbiting in fully occupied 1s orbital. The mechanism for vibration of muon-neutrinos is described on  page "Description of Light".

The CMOP is described on page "Particle physics".

 

Other requirements for dark matter are that the particles are stable and massless (it has been proved that „photons“ are massless).

The only particles which meet all requirements for dark matter are muon-neutrinos

 

Besides the explanation of light, muon-neutrinos offer scientifically sound explanations and descriptions of force fields  and energies (described in VTOE-e-book):

 

Electrostatic force field:

Area of parallel oriented muon-neutrinos, which have been excited by „free“ electrons or positrons to their polar isomers

 

Magnetic force field :

 Area of parallel oriented muon-neutrinos in an excited rotating state.

 

Gravitational force field:

Area with a concentration gradient of muon-neutrinos. Concentration gradient is built up in and around ordinary matter by interactions of muon-neutrinos with ordinary matter.

 

Kinetic energy (dark energy):

 Change of energetic interactions of muon-neutrinos with ordinary matter due to relative velocity. Because of this the kinetic energy depends on concentration of muon-neutrinos.

That means same kinetic energy causes higher velocities in areas of low concentration of dark matter. This effect explains observed rotation velocities in galaxies and speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), see below.

 

Explanation of rotation velocities of galaxies

Chemistry of Physics shows that there is a concentration gradient of dark matter particles (muon-neutrinos) with distance to center of galaxies. This concentration gradient causes the  gravitational force. 

Beside this the lower concentration causes higher velocities of celestial bodies without change of  kinetic energy.

 

Explanation of gravitational lense effect

Besides the velocity of bodies also the velocity of light is depending on concentration of dark matter particles (muon-neutrinos) . As the concentration gradient of muon-neutrinos causes gravity this explains following observations: Gravitaional lense effect of galaxies, Shapiro time delay effect, deflection of light, stellar aberration effect.

Explanation of cosmic inflation

As the speed limit of light and particles are caused by dark matter particles (muon-neutrinos), there is infinite speed as long as there are no dark matter particles. which has been the case in the first milli.seconds of the big bang. (see page "big bang")

Explanation of dark energy

Dark matter particles do also explain the expansion velocity of the universe. See page "Dark energy".

 

Additional informations

Muon-neutrinos of dark matter are in their energetic ground state. They don't have kinetic energy, have no mass and do random movements. By interaction with ordinary matter they get in excited states where they lose their symmetry.  By this they get mass, a directed velocity and kinetic energy.

Current experiments to detect neutrinos just record the muon-neutrinos with high kinetic energy, which are negligible compared to total amount of muon-neutrinos. Therefore the equivalence of dark matter and muon-neutrinos has not been realized. But as nearly all interactions in universe can only be explained by muon-neutrinos, each of these interaction is a proof of the existence of muon-neutrinos as dark matter and a proof of the chemistry of physics. 

According to chemistry of physics the concentration of muon-neutrinos  in ordinary matter is even higher than in vacuum. It can be assumed that the total amount of dark matter is above 99 % of all matter. Dark energy does not contribute to matter. In chemistry of physics there is no unknown energy. The accelerated expansion of the universe can be explained by usual kinetic energy. (see page "dark energy"). 

 

As the dark matter is of extreme importance for nearly all interactions in the universe, it is covered by a separate chapter in VTOE, which is called "Vogel's Theory of Dark Matter", VTDM. See e-book link below.

Links to e-book:  VTOE EU ; VTOE COM