Description of Black Holes

Vogels's Theory of Everything (VTOE) offers the actual completest physical description of black holes and is conform to all observations.

Probability that this description is reality is estimated to be above 0,9.

Following process is generally accepted: After „burnout“ of stars they can collapse to high density stars. Main primary effect of the collapsing energy is that the electrons of outer atomic shells are transferred to shells of the nuclei forming white dwarfs or neutron stars depending on mass. The final state of a neutron star has no relevant electrons in outer shells of nuclei. If a neutron star has a mass above a specific limit the collapsing process continues until it ends up in a black hole.


Formation of black holes

 The chemical model of particles (CMB) of VTOE presents the first scientific explanation the process of black hole generation and the chemical nature of a black hole:

 The collapsing of neutron star to a black hole is a usual decay reaction by collisions of protons, neutrons and electrons. First relative stable reaction products are charged pions, which are further stabilized in a black hole by formation of ionic structures. Further decay of pions to muons is relative slow, because it has to be initiated by electron neutrinos. This reaction forms muon -neutrinos, which can leave the black hole and increase gravity of the black hole (see page "Dark Matter"). This probably is a main cause for formation of galaxies. The matter of a black hole star cannot take up and emit excitation energy in visible range.


VTOE explains high energy of quasars

When ordinary matter gets onto the black hole it decays  to pions and is incorporated into the ionic pion structure of the black hole. The huge reduction of masses by these decays creates extreme high radiation energy, which is observed as quasars.  Mass of a black star can increase by other matter or decrease by losing DM particles.


Black hole shows non-equivlence of inertial and gravitational mass

A black hole is an example which shows  that inertial mass is not equivalent to gravitational mass. When a neutron star decays to a black hole there is a strong reduction of inertial mass but no significant loss in gravitational mass even if the formation of dark matter is not considered.


Black hole is no singularity

Like it is generally the case in science relavistic effects for black holes are not possible. A black hole cannot be described by status of singularity. As the nomination „black hole“ is misleading, black holes should be called „pion stars“ analog to neutron stars.


Links for Comparison: Wikipedia;  New York Times; Theory of Black Holes by G Hooft

Links to e-book:  VTOE EU ; VTOE COM